The words you are searching are inside this book. To get more targeted content, please make full-text search by clicking here.

The CoESPU Magazine 3-2022, the online quarterly journal of Stability Policing

Discover the best professional documents and content resources in AnyFlip Document Base.
Published by The CoESPU Magazine, 2022-10-17 09:16:16

The CoESPU Magazine 3-2022

The CoESPU Magazine 3-2022, the online quarterly journal of Stability Policing

Keywords: CoESPU,Stability Policing

3-2022 The CoESPU
Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units -Sub Iure ad Pacem tuendam Milites paro
The online quarterly Journal of Stability Policing


Dear CoESPU Magazine Readers,
Three quarters of the year are over and many activities and
goals have been achieved by CoESPU. So far, we have hosted 23
courses, three Live Exercises, two Workshops and one Internatio-
nal Conference. In particular, the 1st “Law of the Sea / Anti-Piracy”
course in favour of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) / Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) Countries that we
managed on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
International Cooperation. The four-party summit (G4) of the Eu-
ropean gendarmeries and police forces with military status, orga-
nized by the Carabinieri Headquarters, a multilateral cooperation
initiative between the gendarmeries and police forces with military
status of four countries (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). More recently, on the last 28th of
September, we hosted the international high-level conference on “Environmental Management
in Peace Operations” where many important guests exposed their views on the crucial topic
including among many others Mr Marco Bonabello, Director of Economic and Environmental
Security of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, Ms Elizabeth Rolando, Director of the Office of
the United Nations Undersecretary for Operational Support, and Ambassador Grammenos
Mastrojeni, Deputy Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean.
In this quarterly issue of “The CoESPU Magazine”, you will find several interesting arti-
cles. Among them, Ms Regina Fitzpatrick, Protection of Civilians, Team Leader, Policy and Best
Practices Service, Policy, Evaluation and Training Division, UN Department of Peace Opera-
tions from the United Nations Headquarters and Stephanie Felicitas Springer, jurist specialized
in International Private and Public Law, brilliantly illustrates the Role of the Police in the Pro-
tection of Civilians in UN Peacekeeping Operations.
Mr Lorenzo Soncin, writer, member of the CESMAR think tank (Centro Studi di Geopo-
litica e Strategia Marittima), junior analyst at the Malta Financial Services Authority, offers a
comprehensive exploration concerning the importance of the IRINI initiative for the European
Union especially with regard to the sharing of intelligence information collected during the
Dr. Joanna Siekiera, international lawyer and legal advisor, in her article suggests a
“change in our lenses” to better understand how to protect civilians in modern warfare.
It is with great pleasure that I inform you that Colonel (US Army) William Daniel has
joined our staff as Deputy Director. Welcome Will and good work!
Before wishing you a fruitful reading, I would like to remind you two very important
events: the Police Day that will be held October 30th at BIPSOT in Bangladesh under the aegis
of UNPOL and IAPTC, followed the next day by the 26th IAPTC Annual Conference.
Dear Readers, hoping to have provided you enough food for your thoughts, I wish you a ple-
asant journey through the pages of our Magazine.

BG Giovanni Pietro BARBANO
CoESPU Director



BG. Giovanni Pietro Barbano


Maj. Lucio De Angelis


Maj. Lucio De Angelis
CWO Massimiliano Dimichele
Mr. Denis Rizzotti


United Nations,
CoESPU Magazine Team

Cover picture by Copyright © UNHCR Antoine Tardy
Other authors are indicated in single captions


Telephone +39 0444 932190


Dr. Maureen BROWN Prof. Salvatore CIMINI
BG (ret.) Giorgio CUZZELLI Col. Paolo DI PIAZZA

Prof. Andrea DE GUTTRY Prof. Paolo FORADORI
Dr. Michael DZIEDZIC (Col. ret) Prof. Gian Luca FORESTI
Prof. Oreste FOPPIANI
Prof. Edoardo GREPPI Prof. Sara PENNICINO
Dr. David LIGHTBURN Lt. Col. Pierpaolo SINCONI
Col. Michele LIPPIELLO
Prof. Paolo MAGRI Lt. Col. Federico VECCI
Prof. Emanuele Vittorio PARSI
Prof. Bernardo SALA
Amb. Dmitry TITOV
Prof. Gabriella VENTURINI

The CoESPU Magazine is devoted to the publication of professional concepts and issues, research
and doctrinal products developed by the Carabinieri Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units, in
collaboration with other international research Centers. The Magazine addresses topics of professio-
nal, technical, operational and juridical nature in the field of Stability Policing within Peace Opera-
tions. Based on the core values of ethics, integrity, professionalism and respect for diversity, harmo-
nically inflected and informed by the traditions of over two hundred years of Carabinieri history, the
Magazine fosters Human Rights and gender mainstreaming, while seeking to enhance current police
peacekeeping doctrine and promoting international police peacekeeping interoperability, cognizant
of Lessons Learned and best practises. The CoESPU Magazine is constantly committed to upholding
UN standards, norms, procedures and curricula, while endorsing self-sufficiency of the participating
Police Contributing Countries. Consequently, its editorial policy promotes the principles of represen-
tativeness, responsiveness, and accountability, as well as effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and
accessibility, to provide the highest professional standards to build trust and legitimacy of beneficiary
Law Enforcement Institutions.

DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this journal belong to single authors and do not ne-

cessarily reflect the official policy or position of the CoESPU, the UN, The Italian Government, the
Carabinieri or other nominated Institutions. Content is copyrighted where expressly indicated,
but Material belongs to authors themselves. The Center of Excellence for Stabilities Police Units
retains full and exclusive ownership over other magazine contents and original images. Repro-
duction of any part of this magazine without express written permission is strictly prohibited.



THE ROLE OF THE POLICE IN THE POC IN UN POS.......................................................................... 8
LEGAL CULTURE IN PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS.............................................................................16


IRINI AND INTELLIGENCE SHARING OPPORTUNITIES......................................................................22


DEPUTY DIRECTOR’S CORNER......................................................................................................... 29


PHYSICAL ENHANCEMENT AND CHRONIC PAIN RECOVERY........................................................... 32





“The CoESPU Magazine – the on line Quarterly Journal of Stability Policing” is a stand-alone on line publication.

Printed copies are intended for internal use and shall not be distributed.

[email protected] ISSN: 2611-9005





The Role of the Police in the Pro- an increasingly critical role in lians.2 The Council passed its first
tection of Civilians in UN Pea- POC-mandated peace operations. resolution on POC3 shortly after
cekeeping Operations After an introduction to UN Pe- and, for the first time, explicit-
acekeeping’s approach to POC ly mandated a peacekeeping
by Stephanie Felicitas Springer and UNPOL’s involvement operation “to afford protection
Regina Fitzpatrick in POC, this paper will identify to civilians under imminent thre-
three key areas where UNPOL can at of physical violence” when
Introduction use its capacity and capabilities establishing the UN Mission in
to protect civilians while levera- Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).4 Since
As part of the United Na- ging its comparative advanta- then, advanced by the Secretary-
ges: (1) engaging communities General, the UN has worked
tions’ (UN’s) broader protection and contributing to early war- to integrate legal and physi-
of civilians (POC) agenda, the ning mechanisms; (2) integra- cal protections into the practice
UN Security Council (UNSC) ting a gender perspective into of UN peacekeeping.5 As “Uni-
has mandated UN peacekee- POC and (3) advancing da- ted Nations peacekeeping ope-
ping missions to use all necessary ta-driven approaches to POC. rations [remain] one of the most
means to prevent, deter and effective means of protecting ci-
respond to threats of phy- Protection of Civilians in UN Pe- vilians in conflict zones around
sical violence against civi- acekeeping the world,”6 this is an ongoing
lians.1 UN Peacekeeping’s Following multiple crises and in- and unwavering commitment,
approach to POC is comprehen- terventions in the Balkans, Rwan- which was recently renewed
sive and relies on the enti- da, Sierra Leone, and Somalia and acknowledged by Member
re mission – civilian, military in the 1990s, the UNSC called States in their Action for Pea-
and police components. Over for a comprehensive and coor- cekeeping Declaration (A4P).
the last 20 years, United Na- dinated approach by Member Informing the implementa-
tions police (UNPOL) have played States, international organiza- tion of POC mandates, the De-
tions and agencies to protect civi- partment of Peace Operations


(DPO) has developed comprehen- VII of the UN Charter. It should her/his command have a com-
sive guidance, including for Uni- be noted that this does not limit mon understanding of their POC
ted Nations Police, which has or detract from the primary re- responsibilities.
continuously evolved to reflect sponsibility of the host-state to DPO’s operational concept for
complex operational and con- protect civilians on its territory. POC follows a three-tiered ap-
textual realities. Today, DPO’s The implementation of POC proach: protection through
Policy on the Protection of Civi- mandates is guided by a set of dialogue and engagement (tier
lians in UN Peacekeeping7 pro- legal and practical principles. I), provision of physical pro-
vides a conceptual framework, Notably, POC is a priority man- tection (tier II), and establishment
guiding principles, and key con- date, which means that POC of a protective environment
siderations for the implementa- must be prioritized in decisions (tier III). All mission componen-
tion of POC mandates, and the regarding the allocation, deploy- ts have an important role to play
corresponding POC Handbo- ment, and use of available mission across all three tiers. Missions
ok8 serves as a practical guide capacity and resources, recognizing define their approach, activities,
for civilian, police, and military that limited resources and capa- responsibilities, and objectives
personnel deployed in peaceke- bilities might hinder peacekee- in a POC strategy (or broader
eping operations. According to pers from always implementing mission plan) and establish POC
DPO guidance, POC follows an their mandate effectively. Fur- planning and coordination forums
integrated and comprehensive ap- ther, peacekeepers have an at the strategic, operational, and
proach by all mission componen- active duty to protect; this tactical levels. As part of imple-
menting their
ts – civilian, poli-
– employing missions also
the full range NE OF ALL POC EFFORTS: IT HELPS IDENTIFY AF- create informa-
of mission ca- FECTED COMMUNITIES’ PROTECTION NEEDS AND tion sharing and
pabilities to ad-
dress short- and OF THREATS OR TENSIONS, WHICH CAN INFORM mechanisms at
long-term threats the operational
to civilians and MISSIONS’ EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AND PREVEN- and tactical le-
taking into ac- TION ACTIONS.” vels and con-

count poli- duct quarterly

tical, security, and economic means that their responsibility goes forward-looking threat as-
factors. Missions cooperate beyond responding to imminent sessments to ensure strategic
with all protection actors in the short-term threats and includes coherence. Lastly, POC advisers
field, including UN Country Te- preventive and preemptive and POC focal points support mis-
ams, combining their efforts to action. It is critical that all mis- sion leadership in coordinating
sion components must follow POC mandate implementation.
protect civilians.
The context specific foundation of the do no harm principle in all
POC work is set by the UN Se- their activities. Importantly, se- Protection of Civilians by UN Po-
curity Council in missionspecific nior leaders at mission and HQ lice
mandates. While manda- levels are accountable for the im- Police have been contributing to
tes of individual missions may plementation of POC mandates. protecting civilians since the first
vary in language, they typically This includes Police Commissioners POC-mandated peacekeeping
require the protection of civilians or Senior Police Advisers, who mission in Sierra Leone in 1999.
under threat of physical violen- are responsible for develo- For the first time, the UNSC ack-
ce and, to this end, authorize ping a strategy and operational nowledged the importance
the use of all necessary means, plan for the police component of police as a component of pe-
including, where necessary, the to contribute to the implemen- acekeeping operations and re-
use of force, up to and including tation of the POC mandate and cognized the role of police
deadly force, under Chapter ensures that all personnel under in assuring the safety and well-



being of civilians and the need ximize the police’s contributions IPOs or cohesive units with spe-
for qualified and well-trained to protect civilians now and in cialized skills and capabilities
police.9 Since then, UNPOL’s role in the future. As of May 2022, in areas such as investiga-
POC has undergone increased re- 97.9% of individual police tions, crime scene manage-
cognition and institutionalization. and formed police units operate ment, serious and organized
In 2017, as part of Strate- in POC-mandated UN peaceke- crime, sexual and gender-ba-
gic Guidance Framework for eping missions,11 making POC sed violence (SGBV), or commu-
International Policing (SGF), a fundamental part of UN- nity-oriented policing. Formed
DPO developed guidelines on POL’s work in peacekeeping. Police Units (FPUs) are tasked
“The Role of United Nations Po- The POC tasks taken on by UN with public order management,
lice in Protection of Civilians,”10 police differ according to the protection of UN personnel and
which provide a framework for type of deployment. Individual facilities, and high-risk police ope-
police components in the fulfil- Police Officers (IPOs) are the main rations. POC tasks assumed by
lment of their mandated roles in interlocutors with the host-sta- UNPOL differ across missions,
POC. During the 2022 United te police and local communities. depending on the mandate, na-
Nations Chiefs of Police Summit They cover a variety of poli- tional legislation, the security en-
(UNCOPS) in New York, today’s cing tasks, including commu- vironment, and the hoststate’s
leaders took into account the ra- nity-oriented policing in IDP police capacity and willin-
pidly changing and increasingly camps, information gathering and gness to protect civilians.12
complex operational environment analysis, and mentoring and trai- The 2017 Guidelines demon-
of peacekeepers and commit- ning of national police. Specialized strate how POC activities by
ted to lay the groundwork to ma- Police Teams (SPTs) consist of the police are implemented


through the three-tier approa- sion also supports outreach to help stimulate economic activi-
communities through visits by ad- ty in the Gao, Timbuktu, Mopti
ch outlined above. Firstly, police ministrative and local authorities. and the Kidal regions. Lastly, po-
Under tier II, police, particularly lice contribute to establishing a
contribute to protection through FPUs, provide physical pro- protective environment under
tection through the show or use tier III. This is done through buil-
dialogue and engagement (tier of force, including high-visibility ding the POC capacity and wil-
patrols, inter-positioning, and lingness of the host-state police,
I). This includes liaising and ad- public order management and monitoring human rights, and
de-escalation activities together advising on police reform stra-
vocating for POC with host-state with the host-state police or tegy and the re-establishment of
with the United Nations Mili- rule of law institutions. Police also
authorities, including security ac- tary in line with guidance on help develop core policing skil-
combined operations13. Police ls, including investigationbased
tors, supporting host-state police en- also protect individuals under cre- policing. In South Sudan, the
dible threat of physical violence, UNMISS Police Community-O-
gagement with local communities, including civil society repre- riented Policing and Reform
sentatives and mission inter- Pillar works with the South Sudan
strengthening community-orien- locutors. In Mali, MINSUMA National Police Service on capa-
Police undertake joint patrols, city building and development
ted policing approaches and both regular and long range, efforts, as well as on issues related
with the Malian Security Forces to to security of four major IDP camps.
supporting communitybased support protection efforts and UNPOL has demonstrated a va-

early warning mechanisms. In

the Central African Republic, MI-

NUSCA Police are advocating

with governmental counter-

parts for the inclusion of mi-

nority groups in positions of

responsibility, including within

the Internal Security Forces (ISF)

that comprise the gendarmerie

and police and their participa-

tion in relevant fora. The Mis-



riety of strengths and compara- Leveraging UNPOL’s Comparati- ties. Utilizing community-oriented
tive advantages in implementing ve Advantages in Advancing POC policing, UNPOL can levera-
the POC mandate, complemen- In order to capitalize on the out- ge community partnerships to
ting civilian and military com- lined strengths and compara- prevent and detect violence as
ponents of the missions.14 Police tive advantages, UNPOL can well as build a protective envi-
are well equipped and trained to consolidate its crucial role in ronment for communities. Ba-
address criminality and related UN peacekeeping’s POC work sed on their privileged role with
violence. Following a proactive through enhanced efforts in the local communities, police can help
and preemptive approach, po- following areas. restore and nurture public trust
lice provide a valuable skil- 1. Engaging Communities and and acceptance of state services

lset in information gathering, Contributing to Early-Warning Me- such as policing. In the case
which informs early-war- chanisms of MINUSCA, MINUSMA, and
ning mechanisms. UN- Community engagement is a cor- MONUSCO, this has been
POL act as a deterrent throu- nerstone of all POC efforts: It helps done through joint patrol-
gh patrols and interpositioning identify affected communities’ ling with national police for-
while retaining the civilian protection needs and capaci- ces, among other efforts.
character of POC sites and ties and allows for early de-
IDP camps. Police also serve tection of threats or tensions, 2. Integrating a Gender Perspecti-
as an important interlocutor betwe- which can inform missions’ ear- ve into POC
en the missions and both the af- ly warning systems and preven- In view of the need to ensure gen-
fected communities and hoststate tion actions. Through UNPOL’s der-responsive approaches to
authorities. Through this confi- community-oriented policing ap- POC, specialized police capacities
dence-building, police contribu- proach, police possess extensi- are in place to provide tech-
te to more sustainable protection ve experience and specialized nical expertise in the com-
capacities. skills, which make them well-su- prehensive implementation of
ited to interact with communi- POC mandates. UNPOL’s Gen-


der Advisers and Gender Focal acomprehensivehandbookonstan- ties consider the differentiated
Points at UNHQ, mission HQs dardized best practices on gender
and in sectors play a critical role mainstreaming in peacekeeping protection needs of local com-
in ensuring that POC strategies called the “United Nations Po-
and plans are gender-responsive lice Gender Toolkit,”16 to ensu- munities, going beyond sexual
and that there is effective co- re consistent, comprehensive
ordination with other speciali- and standardized approa- violence. Further, police
zed protection mandates such as ches to mainstreaming gender
conflict-related sexual violen- and implementing the women, should strengthen women’s parti-
ce (CRSV) and child protection peace and security mandate.
cipation and leadership in confli-

ct prevention, conflict resolution,

and peacebuilding efforts. Ove-

rall, gender-responsive poli-

cing activities throughout tiers

(CP). It is widely recognized that With these capabilities and tools, I-III will improve the impact of
women’s participation in UN pea- UNPOL is in a unique position POC mandate implementation.
ce operations contributes to impro- to advance the integration of gen-
ved decision-making, planning, der perspectives into POC. This 3. Advancing Data-driven Approa-
and results, boosting operatio- could include improving situational ches to POC
nal effectiveness and perfor- awareness by ensuring that com- Lastly, police are well-placed to
mance. Women peacekeepers munity engagement is con- advance data-driven approa-
prove to be key enablers in pro- ducted in a gender-responsive ches to POC. DPO has committed
viding access to and building manner – one that systematical- to evolving and leveraging te-
trust and confidence with local ly collects and utilizes sex-disag- chnological innovations to
communities. As of May 2022, gregated data as a minimum. prepare peacekeeping for
19.2% of police deployed in UN At the same time, POC analysis ne- emerging challenges. In line with
peace operations are female,15 eds to be informed by gender-spe- DPO’s Digital Transformation
demonstrating significant pro- cific risks and vulnerabilities. Strategy, data and technology
gress on targets set in 2016. Mo- In this regard, police should need to be used to their maxi-
reover, in 2015, UNPOL adopted ensure that protection activi- mum potential for the protection



of civilians. UNPOL’s intelligence- across all mission components Police can also contribute to
led policing approaches alrea- a protective environment pur-
dy help plan, prioritize and al- and the harmonization of existing suant to tier III by providing
locate resources in missions’ national counterparts with spe-
POC work as police make va- and creation of joint databa- cialized training to modernize
luable contributions to the mis- all aspects of police work, from
sion’s situational awareness. For ses. Doing so will allow for faster crime scene investigation, forensic
example, in Mali, MINUSMA Po- ballistic expertise and evidence ar-
lice contribute to Spatio-Tem- data verification processes, more chiving to detention management.
poral Incident Mapping (STIM),
which helps produce evidence-ba- accurate spatio-temporal mapping, Conclusion
sed analyses, including on geo- Police play a crucial role in pro-
graphical hotspot areas, to optimize improved early-warning, integra- tecting civilians in UN peaceke-
integrated patrol planning with eping missions. It has been
the UN Military in support of ted patrol planning, and enhanced shown that the police have stren-
POC efforts. UN peacekeeping gths and comparative advanta-
can look to further capitalize gender-responsive policing. ges in the areas of community
on existing capacities and pro- engagement, the advancement of
mote data-driven POC work. In accordance with tier II, in- gender perspectives in POC, and
It is crucial that UNPOL’s data the implementation of databased
collection and analysis is part of tegrated incident mapping approaches to POC. If the po-
a whole-of-mission endeavor, lice continue to build their ca-
requiring information sharing helps to improve patrol plan- pabilities and capacities in

ning and thus leads to better

physical protection in areas with

heightened violence against civi-

lians. UNPOL should continue to

develop its specialized capacities

and resources in the context of

digital transformation, especial-

ly strengthening its predictive

and preemptive policing, cyber-

crime, and knowledge-based ar-

tificial intelligence capabilities.


these key areas while ensuring PICTURES:
the integration of their activities pdf> accessed 27 1 Image by UNPOL
and information sharing across August 2022. 2 Image by UNPOL
mission components, UNPOL 8 UN Department of Peace Operations, The 3 Image by UNPOL
can consolidate their important Protection of Civilians in United Nations Pea- 4 Image by UNPOL
role in POC and contribute to cekeeping Handbook, 5 Image by UNPOL
enabling UN peacekeeping mis- United Nations 2020, <https://peacekeeping.
sions to protect civilians in incre- Stephanie Felicitas Springer
asingly challenging operational ok_final_as_printed.pdf> German jurist specialized in In-
environments. accessed 11 August 2022. ternational Private and Public
…. 9 UN Security Council, Resolution 1265 (22 Law
The authors of this article are October 1999) UN Doc S/RES/1265, para 15. Regina Fitzpatrick
part of the Protection of Civi- 10 UN Department of Peace Operations, Team Leader, Protection of Ci-
lians Team at the Policy and Best 2017.12 Guidelines - The Role of United Na- vilians, in the UN Department
Practices Service in the United Na- tions Police in Protection of of Peace Operations (DPO),
tions Department of Peace Ope- Civilians, United Nations 2017, <https://po- Division of Policy, Evaluations
rations. The opinions expressed and Training (DPET).
in the article reflect their per- vilians-unpol_guidelines_
sonal views and do not repre- 2017.pdf> accessed 26 July 2022.
sent those of the organization 11 UN Department of Peace Operations, Con-
tribution of Uniformed Personnel to UN by Mis-
note sion, Personnel Type,
and Gender, United Nations 2022, <https://
1 Since 1999, 16 UN peacekeeping missions
have been given explicit POC mandates. Cur- gender_statistics_
rently there are six POCmandated 50_may_2022.pdf> accessed 27 August
missions: MINUSCA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, 2022.
UNIFIL, UNISFA, and UNMISS. 12 Charles T Hunt, Protection through Poli-
2 UN Security Council, Statement by the Pre- cing: The Protective Role of UN Police in Peace
sident of the Security Council (12 February Operations, International
1999) UN Doc Peace Institute 2020, p. 4.
S/PRST/1999/6, 3. 13 UN Department of Peace Operations,
3 UN Security Council, Resolution 1265 (17 2019.16 Guidelines - Combined Military and
September 1999) UN Doc S/RES/1265. Police Coordination Mechanisms
4 UN Security Council, Resolution 1270 (22 in Peace Operations, United Nations 2019,
October 1999) UN Doc S/RES/1270, para 14. < h t t p s : / / w w w. s p a r k b l u e . o r g / s y s t e m / f i -
5 Victoria Holt, Glyn Taylor and Max Kelly, Pro- les/2020-06/Combined%
tecting Civilians in the Context of UN Peaceke- 20Military%20and%20Police%20Coordina-
eping Operations: tion%20Mechanisms%20in%20Peace%20Ope-
Successes, Setbacks and Remaining Challen- rations.pdf>
ges, United Nations, New York 2009, p. 43. accessed 9 September 2022.
6 António Guterres, Secretary-General’s Re- 14 For a detailed analysis, see also Charles
marks to the Security Council Open Debate on T Hunt, Protection through Policing: The Pro-
the Protection of Civilians tective Role of UN Police
in Armed Conflict [as Delivered] | United Na- in Peace Operations, International Peace Insti-
tions Secretary-General, United Nations 2020, tute 2020, pp. 5 et seqq.
< 15 UN Department of Peace Operations, Con-
tement/2020-05-27/secretary-generals-re- tribution of Uniformed Personnel to UN by Mis-
marks-the-security-councilopen- sion, Personnel Type,
debate-the-protection-of-civilians-armed-con- and Gender, United Nations 2022, <https://
flict-delivered> accessed 31 August 2022.
7 UN Department of Peace Operations, gender_statistics_
2019.17 Policy - The Protection of Civilians in 50_may_2022.pdf> accessed 27 August
United Nations Peacekeeping, 2022.
United Nations 2019, <https://peacekeeping. 16 United Nations Police, United Nations Poli-
ce Gender Toolkit, United Nations 2015, <ht-
ce_gender_toolkit_handbook1.pdf> accessed
27 August 2022.





Legal culture in Protection of Ci- observe now during the Russian legal but also cultural perspective,
vilians – to protect better we must aggression in Ukraine at most, it is as when analysing and deploying
change our lens far more dangerous to be a civilian the tools and methods of pro-
rather than a soldier in armed con- tecting vulnerable non-combatan-
by Joanna Siekiera flicts. Civilians are being delibera- ts, we should use the perpetrator’s
tely targeted not only by armed lens and think about how he or she
For our Western civilisation, re- groups, so official military arms of does in order to prevent violence.
spect for human rights in the states but also by non-state actors
time of peace and protection of (NSA). The latter become more The United Nations Report of the
civilians during armed conflict and more influential and powerful Secretary-General on “Protection
stand at the top of the hierarchy in domains of politics, economy, of civilians in armed conflict” in-
of our values. Yet, we must stop and security. The governmental dicated that in 2021 there were
expecting the same standards and non-governmental, legal and 11,075 civilian deaths recorded
and international law obedien- illegal groups purposely attack ci- at least across 12 armed confli-
ce from our enemies. It threats vilians as it is one of their more ef- cts. Those statistics are definitely
not only the success of the mis- fective, hence cheapest and fastest understated taking into account
sion but most importantly health to accomplish, warfare strategies. abductions, mass graves, suppres-
and lives of the most vulnerable From the international criminal le- sion of evidence or falsification of
groups. gal standpoint, the war criminals data transferred from governmen-
are well aware that international ts, or finally the lack of access to
Civilians in modern warfare law is weak, leaky, and lacks en- information from terrorist groups,
forcement measures, as well as the rebels or other NSA. Some data
As this tendency has been growing way to justice is long, complicated can be recalled here though. In Af-
and (too) often perpetrators eva- ghanistan, in the first half of 2021,
since Second World War, what we de punishment. In this article, the civilian casualties reached record
author will present her perception levels: a 47 % increase from the
of Protection of Civilians from the same period in 2020 (5,183 civi-


lians killed and injured based on bs peacekeeping endeavours, the These values are placed at the top
available data). In Nigeria, 3,008 adverse effects of sanctions, vio- of the societal hierarchy. They fun-
civilians were killed [were officially lence against specially protected ction also in the legal space, in con-
documented], in Ethiopia - 2,993 by International humanitarian law stitutions, in constitutional identity,
civilian deaths and 998 injuries, entities and their assets, and other distinguishing the West from the
in Yemen - at least 811 civilians difficulties overlapped to hinder East. The Western civilisation puts
were killed or injured, in the De- medical access, all pose harsh a single human life at the top of
mocratic Republic of the Congo consequences for civilians in need. the hierarchy of legally protected
values. Hence, we spend an enor-
- at least 2,474 civilians were kil-
led and 2,538 were wounded, in Legal culture – does it matter? mous amount of money on saving,

the Syrian Arab Republic - at le- The short answer is – yes, like ne- searching, helping, and curing one
ast 875 civilian deaths and 1,259 ver before. Up until the end of the human life. We codify legal norms
injuries. Civilian deaths and inju- Cold War, the traditional Western in order to protect life, while the
ries were also reported in other perspective identified Western ci- highest penalties of imprisonment
states, predominantly in Camero- vilisation with Western countries are provided for deprivation of life.
on, the Central African Republic, and their Christian (Catholic-Pro- In contrast, for the Eastern civilisa-
Mozambique, Myanmar, and the testant) culture, in a way placing it tions, the biggest value is indeed
Occupied Palestinian Territory1. in opposition to Eastern civilisation a society, a community creating a
(the Soviet Union with its Christian nation or a state, where entities

Here, to achieve the military Orthodox denomination) and the must sacrifice for the benefit of all.

objective(s) the ad-
versary uses not only “THE UNITED NATIONS REPORT OF THE SECRE- Thus, prou-
killing as a tool. Mu- dly holding
tilation, torture, and TARY-GENERAL ON “PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS IN training and
other ill-treatment ARMED CONFLICT” INDICATED THAT IN 2021 THE- education in
were also reported in
almost every conflict. LEAST ACROSS 12 ARMED CONFLICTS.”
reness, we

Hostilities are cha- should also

racterized by high l e v e l s non-Christian cultures of the Far be familiar with various legal cul-
of psychological trauma, confli- East, the so-called Orient (Hindu- tures affecting the political and
ct-related sexual violence, family ism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucia- military behaviour of the enemy,
separation, eroded critical infra- nism). Whereas over the course of but also of Host Nation, our coun-
structure, disruption of potable history and the formation of poli- terparts, contractors, civilian col-
water, sanitation, electricity, and tical and military alliances, belon- laborators, and local community
health services, and finally hun- ging to one of the two civilisations leaders. As the author’s mission
ger, forced displacement, increase – Eastern or Western – was deter- is to make aware of the different
in criminal activities and insecuri- mined by ideological affiliation legal-cultural mindsets represen-
ty. The misuse of digital technolo- and professed values. This anthro- ted by us – the Western world, the
gies must also be added here, as pological perception of the world “West” - and the perpetrator(s),
it facilitates the spread of disinfor- contrasted and still contrasts. One we must stop expecting the war
mation, misinformation, and hate might even say to a greater extent criminal(s) to follow international
speech. All of that, in the 21st cen- and on a greater number of levels. humanitarian law principles. The
tury fuels armed conflicts and in- Western nations pride themselves perpetrators intentionally fail to
creases the risks of civilian harm on their unity embedded in com- comply with a legal obligation to
– both from the military but also mon principles equally important protect the vulnerable groups of
the civilian population supporting to each of them. These are demo- children, women, disabled. Exact-
one of the sides of the conflict. cracy, the rule of law, equality be- ly contrary to that, they use our
Lastly, bureaucratic impediments, fore the law, tolerance, freedom, goodwill, one of the fundamental
humanitarian aid which becomes pluralism, and a liberal economy principles in international law and
a profitable industry and/or distur- functioning in an open society. international relations, to humi-



liate our sacred values. The latest Finally, an interrelationship betwe- of governmental, non-governmen-
example, which the author has en culture and law has long been tal and civil-society character), and
analysed on many occasions2, was postulated. Legal culture stands the role of different legal sources
the Ukrainian attempt to protect somehow between written norms (customary law, acts of parliament,
own citizens by writing inscriptions and oral tradition, with unclear judgements of courts). Hence le-
with the Russian word Дети (Eng. borders in both directions. It re- gal culture can be understood as
Children) on the rooftops where presents the cultural background the set of values, ideas, and atti-
the population was hiding before of law which creates the legal regi- tudes that a given society has with
the Russian bombardment. What me, and which is necessary to give respect to its law. In other words,
happened next? Clearly, for Rus- meaning to law. This also com- a society will legalize/penalize tho-
sians it was a well-defined target, prehends the role of law in society, se values which are considered
and they did not hesitate to take the actual authority of institutions central to be protected or to be
the advantage to strike those tar- and different actors (organizations banned in order to keep the sta-
gets and kill innocent people. bility and prosperity in a manner


expected by a population driven civilians, we must understand the note
by its culture (religion, philosophy, rationale of the perpetrator. Thus, 1- Olson, Peter M., “A NATO perspective on
course of history, interaction with it is beneficial to implement the applicability and application of IHL to multina-
neighbouring countries, influence threat-based approach, or the tional forces”, International Review of the Red
of minorities or former metropolis). problem-based approach, focused Cross 2013/95; Willmot H. and Sheeran S.:
On one hand, the norms codified on the intentions and needs of the “The protection of civilians mandate in UN pe-
by one nation can differ from tho- enemy, and the probability of what acekeeping operations: reconciling protection
se binding in a neighbouring state, kind of actions/omission would be concepts and practices”, International Review
not to mention different continen- the most beneficial for the perpetra- of the Red Cross 2013/95; United Nations,
ts. The catalogue of human rights tor to achieve own goal(s). As ter- Report of the United Nations Secretary-Gene-
(those of social and economic di- ms such as violence, power, top va- ral, “Protection of civilians in armed conflict”,
mensions) will also vary in certain lues, and success mean something S/2022/381, 10th May 2022.
legal orders which derives from different for us and the enemy, the 2-Compare: Joanna Siekiera, Protection of Ci-
the principle of sovereignty where methods used, time and scope will vilians in Multi-Domain Operations, “Magazi-
every independent state has the ri- also vary. Thus, understanding the ne of the NATO Rapid Deployable Corps- Italy”
ght to establish its own laws and rationale of the perpetrator under- 2022/33, available: http://www.nrdc-ita.nato.
policies. On the other hand, thou- pinning the violence is crucial since int/db_object/www_nrdc-ita_nato_int/usr/file/
gh, states belonging to the West a particular motivation (revenge, ER/ISSUE_33_SUMMER_2022.pdf; The Kru-
share similar legal standards de- imperialist aspirations, commu- lak Center, Marine Corp University, Dr. Joanna
spite their geographical location, nal conflicts, insurgencies, mob Siekiera, “Fragile, Leaky, & Weak: Challenges
like Europe, Australia, or America. violence, regime crackdown, eth- for Humanitarian Law” (1.05.2022): https://
nic cleansing, and genocide) de- -
Changing mindset sensitises and mand different capabilities, strate- s&t=2262s
broadens our perspectives gies, and tactics to succeed. Force, PICTURES:
Despite significant efforts to pro- mainly military, should also be 1 Image by © UNHCR/Chris Melzer Refugees
tect civilians from violence started used differently, as the scope and entering Poland from Ukraine at the Medyka
in the late 1990s after many inter- spectrum of violence are different. border crossing point.
national failures to protect vulne- 2 Image by © UNICEF/Anton Skyba for The
rable groups, we have been obser- As the enemy does not only con- Globe and Mail An apartment building that
ving the so-called “implementation sciously breaches the internatio- was heavily damaged during escalating con-
gap”. One of the explanations for nal customary norm of not targe- flict in Ukraine
this gap, from the military perspecti- ting civilians, but also misuses our 3 Image by Danish Red Cross/Jakob Dall A
ve, is that the protection of civilians deep faith in the international or- woman stands in the middle of what used to
is not yet well reflected in military der, we must start looking through be her rose garden in Ukraine. (file)
doctrine, strategies, and practices. his or her lens. Only then we will
This important branch of security is be able to interpret hostile actions Dr. Joanna Siekiera
still perceived as a “softer” aspect in order to predict the next stages International lawyer, Legal Advisor
of military operations, while not re- which are military/politically/eco- (Pacific law, Law of armed conflict)
ceiving the same attention in plan- nomically beneficial for the war - Faculty of Law, University of Bergen,
ning and executing as “harder” criminal. Understanding this ratio- Norway
kinetic operations. Yet, protecting nale enables us to prepare for the
civilians from all types of threats methods and actions most likely
is not only a moral imperative for to be adopted against civilians.
military forces but de jure and de
facto failure to do so has strategic
implications for the intervening for-
ce, undermining the authority and
goodwill of the nations involved.

Therefore, for better protection of





Combining two dimensions; IRI- document enlisting its CSDP’s pri- reality: the sharing of intelligen-
NI and intelligence sharing op- orities for the next future. Another ce information collected during
portunities listed priority is the surveillance of the mission. It is well known that
Europe’s maritime borders, a very in our interconnected and glo-
by Lorenzo Soncin sensitive spot for human, econo- balized world national resour-
mic and energetic security of the ces alone -however good they
Now that the ongoing conflict in whole Union. Therefore, the Stra- may be- they might not be suffi-
tegic Compass specifically refers to cient to gather enough data on
Ukraine is designing the security EUNAVFORMED IRINI and ATLAN- global threats. This is due to the
concept of the whole world, the TA, two ongoing CSDP missions in fact that these threats are them-
European Union (EU) is rediscove- the Mediterranean Sea and off the selves transnational or global.
ring the interest toward its common Somalia’s shoreline. Given their When a CSDP mission is launched,
security and defence policy (CSDP) power and resources, they can the EU has a great and unique op-
missions. States consider them as guarantee both EU and NATO portunity for the information ga-
an opportunity to achieve common interests while being a valuable thering. Firstly, the information is
goals while sharing the burdens benchmark for the EU-NATO sy- often real-time or daily updated by
and this makes them a pillar of the nergy. Briefly, these two missions resources in the operational the-
external action of the EU to enhan- can be considered as pivotal for atre. This also means that in case
ce its common security. This is one the EU maritime security and for of doubt the operating unit could
of the main topic of the recently the entire common security policy. verify an ambiguous information.
issued Strategic Compass, an EU However, IRINI has a peculiar trait Secondly, we should bear in mind
that deals with a less-discussed that information collected abroad


is often of great importance for na- that is both military and civilian particular Frontex, EUROPOL,
tional security. This is valid for EU thus being the perfect link between EUROJUST, the European Asylum
internal security too. The omnipre- the two realities. After the success Support Office, the European
sent threat of terrorism represents of this choice, it has been deci- Union Satellite Centre (SATCEN)
the most important example to bet- ded to replicate it with IRINI cre- and relevant CSDP missions.”
ter understand this concept. Except ating the Crime Information Cell By stating that, it is clear that there
for war, terrorism taught states the (CIC). An officer and two NCOs was an interest in the information
importance of cooperation and in- that operate within the Opera- sharing from the beginning, as we
formation sharing. Finally, sharing tion Headquarter (OHQ) compo- have analysed before. It was also
naval, aerial and satellite assets1 se the cell. They operate as a link reconfirmed the use of the SIE-
reduces costs for member states. assuring the information sharing NA (Secure Information Exchan-
A single asset can Applica-
collect a piece of in- SCUSSED REALITY: THE SHARING OF INTELLIGENCE IN- tion) system:
formation or parti- FORMATION COLLECTED DURING THE MISSION. IT IS a particular
cular data useful for WELL KNOWN THAT IN OUR INTERCONNECTED AND transmission
a member state, for
avoiding expen- purpose. It can
sive duplications. SUFFICIENT TO GATHER ENOUGH DATA ON GLOBAL be used by the
The EU has well un- THREATS.” EU member
derstood these three
concepts and has t a k e n with Frontex, Europol and Inter- states and by those countries who
action. Although even before the pol as provided by article 10 par. have signed a collaboration agre-
beginning of the missions, sharing 3 of the PESC decision 2020/472: ement with Europol. Europol not
information was perceived as a “EUNAVFOR MED IRINI shall co- only provided the use of SIENA but
priority. In 1998 Europol, the Eu- operate with the relevant Mem- also has an IRINI officer appoin-
ropean agency whose purpose is ber State authorities and shall ted to the agency, as a further pro-
to collect, elaborate and distribu- establish a coordination mecha- of of its interest toward the ope-
te investigative information, was nism, and, as appropriate, con- ration. However, as we can read
founded. Since then, the scale of clude arrangements with other from the above quote, Europol is
threats and therefore the securi- Union agencies and bodies, in not the only agency interested in

ty necessities continued to grow

in recent years. Nowadays, tho-

se threats crossed borders and

boundaries between military and

civil world. Therefore, intelligen-

ce collected for military purposes

could also be useful for law enfor-

cement and for this very reason in

the previous Mediterranean ope-


an Europol officer was involved.

His task was to transmit every intel

that was considered crucial to be

shared. It is relevant that for this

task was appointed a Carabinieri

officer. As a matter of fact, being

the Carabinieri both law enforce-

ment and a military, they represent

the best choice to perform a task



the information provided by IRI- rically affecting information sha- trafficking and oil smuggling thus
NI. Also, Frontex is linked to IRINI ring. The first one is the purpose mitigating the bad effects of the
for the protection and surveillan- limitation: a concept by which data purpose limitation while remaining
ce of the southern/Mediterrane- should come as a consequence or within the scope of the mission. In
an border. In this case, IRINI and a result of a given task and used addition, this also allows the pre-
Frontex share their liaison officers. only for that purpose. Even thou- sence of and the cooperation with
The positive externalities of the in- gh we shall consider the rightness other agencies such as Frontex.
formation collection operated by of this principle (both from a legal Another challenge for the mission
IRINI go through and beyond EU and moral point of view), nonethe- is the situation in Libya. We shall
structure. The European Exter- less in some case it was a serious remind that the EU provides a par-
nal Action Service and NATO are obstacle that hindered the infor- ticular protection to people and
two examples of how the data mation collection and sharing. IRI- their data. For this reason, EU au-
collected by IRINI can help to im- NI addressed this issue by having thorities and states can share per-
prove the situation awareness of a different mandate from EUNA- sonal data only with countries that
other allied entities operating in VFORMED-SOPHIA. The new mis- offer guarantees on human rights
or nearby the operational area. sion is wider in its approach, even and respect of people’s personal
Practically speaking, the use of though its main task is implemen- data. Sadly, it is clear that Libya
the abovementioned SIENA sy- ting the UN arms embargo on Li- cannot meet EU standards. The-
stem facilitates the sharing pro- bya. As tasks of the mission, we can refore, even if in the future there
cess. The system guarantees a also find the fight against human could be a cooperation with the
channel of communication with Libyan Navy and Coast Guard
member states and with those (not in place today), for having a
countries who can have access proper sharing we should wait a
to Europol information. The use long period of time. As this limit
of two separate computer termi- works both ways, EU relies even
nals, one for ordinary use and more on her assets. Therefore,
another one for dealing with sen- ships and aircrafts are the trump
sitive data, adds one layer of pro- card of information collection.
tection to collected data. Talking One more issue affecting the in-
about its use in Italy, SIENA can formation sharing is the principle
be operated by Carabinieri per- of reciprocity. Information should
sonnel trained ad hoc by Europol. come and go in a balanced way
IRINI is also the good benchmark among the stakeholders of the
to face some old problems histo- mission. If this is not the case, the
collaborative spirit, so important
for the success of the mission, will


well for the rest of the mandate.
The situation as described is su-
rely positive. The most promising
aspect is the awareness at every
level, from the political to the tacti-
cal one, of the importance of co-
operation and the consequent will
to share the efforts for the infor-
mation collection on a European
level. If SOPHIA was the starting
point for this, IRINI is its evolution.
The hope is that other EU mis-
sion, both civil and military, will
follow this pattern until one day it
will become an established practi-
ce given the acknowledged link
between internal and external se-
curity and between military and ci-
vilian dimensions. Only by joining
forces we will get the most out of
EU and international missions.

1 All the assets operating within IRINI are
listed at the following link: https://www.ope-

soon run out. However, it is not a for not sharing that information. PICTURES:
solution to impose the sharing, for The last obstacle to the opera- by IRINI
example by establishing a man- tion from its beginning is the Co-
datory mechanism. Not only it is vid-19 pandemic. Even though Lorenzo Soncin
difficult to foresee, but also it is the spreading of the virus could
unfeasible from a legal point of have hampered the mission, the Master degree in International
view. Therefore, we should find constant presence and assistance Relations, Turin University
other ways to fight the free riding of medical military personnel al- Degree in International and Diplo-
phenomenon. A way to deal with lowed the mission to keep going. matic Sciences, Trieste University
it could be the consciousness of Some measures have been taken,
the importance of a balance in the such as a preventive quarantine
sharing, believing in the good will for the operating unit or the distri-
of the parts and proving it. Howe- bution of masks and sanitizers. It
ver, it is true that sometimes states was even planned a remote trai-
can be reluctant to share a piece ning to the Libyan Coast Guard,
of information or data because of but it was never operated becau-
the national interest. For example, se of the situation in the country.
if a particular information is cru- What was kept going remotely
cial for an ongoing investigation was also the cooperation with
by the prosecutor office (such as the other agencies and entities.
the Italian Procura della Repubbli- The resilience of the operation in
ca), there could be a legal reason these adverse conditions bodes






Dear readers,
I would like to take advantage of this opportunity to introduce myself: I am Co-
lonel (US Army) Will Daniel, newly appointed CoESPU Deputy Director. I come
to the COESPU by way of US Africa Command where I most recently served as
the Defense Attaché at US Embassy Mogadishu, Somalia. I am very excited to
join the team of professionals here in Vicenza and look forward to meeting as
many of you as possible.
I’d like to direct your attention to the CoESPU Alumni Program, which is an
internet-based project we designed to encourage all the former CoESPU stu-
dents to keep in touch with each other and share lessons learned from your
experience while deployed or at home. The registered community will have the
opportunity to access the most current UN doctrine and guidance, as well as
the CoESPU training material, with the aim of enhancing Police Contributing
Country (PCC) Self Sufficiency via alumni capability to train.
There’s an already existing sense of fraternity and “belonging” that arises
from individual participation in the various courses and activities organized by
the CoESPU. The Alumni Program aims to build upon that collegiality by en-
couraging a social network among the graduates, as well as providing access
to the CoESPU’s resources, such as developing doctrines and the latest tactics,
techniques and procedures.
I warmly invite all our former students to join the CoESPU Alumni Program so-
cial network! It’s easy and it only requires a simple registration, through our
Furthermore I also encourage you to collaborate with The CoESPU Magazine
by sending your articles about your professional experiences from all over the
world to [email protected].

Once again, I am excited to join the CoESPU team and eager to support the
efforts of preparing men and women to serve in challenging environments and
protect communities around the world.





Physical enhancement and chro- with considerable detrimental he- protocols, which include an array
nic pain recovery: An association alth effects, especially for acti- of different professionals ranging
with Anti-aging and regenerative ve-duty personnel who leave for from clinical psychologists to me-
medicine deployment on short term and un- dical doctors, there is an increase
der extreme stress-related burdens. in the focus on cellular regene-
by Nicola Sarandria Now, thanks to recent years of re- ration and organ enhancement

Society life has always been a “PROTOCOLS CAN BE FORMULATED USING
source of stress in history of human DICINE) TECHNOLOGIES WHICH HAVE BEEN
kind for its intricacies involving job, PROVEN TO ACT ON CELLULAR AGEING AND
expectations and relationships. Hi- PAIN MODULATION.”
gh-intensity jobs often require an
extreme level of both physical and search, science and medicine can coupled with recovery programs
mental resilience. This resilience is provide an effective support pro- and cognitive enhancement can
often provided and supported by gram for such people. Protocols be actuated for special job pro-
the training that these job profiles can be formulated using modern file individuals who are subjects
require. A perfect example are mi- and EBM (Evidence-based Medici- to high stress loas, such as mi-
litary personnel who undergo ex- ne) technologies which have been litary personnel who have to be
tensive training and who are under proven to act on cellular ageing deployed or who need to recover
extreme physical and mental strain and pain modulation. Different from post-deployment or job-re-


lated disorders (such as PTSD - important factor to consider when used in physical enhancement and
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder). develop protocols intended to in- anti-aging medicine. Two of these
In the Olimpia Medical Center in crease the person’s wellness, heal- technologies are Hyperbaric treat-
Vicenza, a high focus is placed th and state of mind. Resilience and ments and Pulsed Electromagnetic
on top-of-the-line equipment and physical impact the performance Field therapies, which used in par-
extremely prepared professionals of the person and the subject’s ticular protocols have been shown
which will include a multidiscipli- life-span in dramatical ways. so far to be effective in the wel-
nary team of physicians, psycholo- In this article, it is interesting to lness and fitness of the individual.
gist and physiotherapists, tailored note technologies and systems - Hyperbaric treatment (HBOT-
also for personnel with niche needs which have been shown to be ef- hyperbaric oxygen therapy) The fin-
according to their job profiles, an fective in different studies to be dings indicated that the treatments
actually reversed the ageing pro-
cess (Hachmo et al, 2020) in two
of its major aspects: The telomeres
at the ends of the chromosomes
grew longer instead of shorter, at
a rate of 20%-38% for the different
cell types; and the percentage of
senescent cells in the overall cell
population was reduced signifi-
cantly -- by 11%-37% depending
on cell type. Hyperbaric oxygen
therapy, orHBOT, treatments pro-
vide high percent oxygen delive-
red under increased pressure that
helps treat post-traumatic stress
disorder, or PTSD. This increased
oxygen helps heal damaged brain
tissue, improves blood flow, redu-
ces inflammation, and promotes
the growth of new tissue and blo-
od vessels. It will enhance physical
and cognitive capabilities by being
applied in specific protocols tailo-
red to military personnel. Increase
in physical performance by mecha-
nisms may be related to significant
improvements in mitochondrial re-
spiration and increased mitochon-
drial mass. Furthermore it is quite
interesting that HBOT has been
shown to have positive effects in
behavioral and neurochemical
profile of PTSD outcomes (con-
sidering that HBOT has been
shown effective in an array of
mental disorders) (Lin, 2019).
- Pulsed Electromagnetic Field
Therapy (Having experience in the
field for the last six years). In recent



scientific literature, it is documen- for tissue regeneration because of physical and cognitive capabilities
ted that the deep brain stimulation their ability to stimulate cell proli- by being applied in specific pro-
via electromagnetic fields (EMFs) feration and immune functions via tocols tailored to military person-
modulates the neurophysiological the HSP70 protein family. Pulsed nel. PEMF therapy acts on the mi-
activity of the pathological circuits electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are cro-vasculature and will stimulate
the blood flow. Considerable posi-
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY, OR HBOT, tive effects have been shown in ter-
TREATMENTS PROVIDE HIGH PERCENT OXY- ms of pain management and stif-
GEN DELIVERED UNDER INCREASED PRESSURE fness, even in pathologies such as
THAT HELPS TREAT POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS Osteoarthritis (Yang et al, 2020)..

and produces clinical benefits in a noninvasive, safe and effective
certain patients with neurodegene- physical therapy, with no signifi-
rative disorders. EMFs are applied cant side effects. It will enhance



Hachmo, Y., Hadanny, A., Abu Hamed, R., Da-
niel-Kotovsky, M., Catalogna, M., Fishlev, G.,
Lang, E., Polak, N., Doenyas, K., Friedman,
M., Zemel, Y., Bechor, Y. and Efrati, S., 2020.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases telomere
length and decreases immunosenescence in
isolated blood cells : a prospective trial. Aging.
Lin, C., Huang, K., Tung, C. and Liu, Y., 2019.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy restored traumatic
stress-induced dysregulation of fear memory
and related neurochemical abnormalities.
Behavioural Brain Research, 359, pp.861-870.
Yang, X., He, H., Ye, W., Perry, T. and He, C.,
2020. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field
Therapy on Pain, Stiffness, Physical Function,
and Quality of Life in Patients With Osteoar-
thritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analy-
sis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials.
Physical Therapy, 100(7), pp.1118-1131.
1 Image by
2 Image by https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.jbs.
3 Image by
4 Image by https://www.friendshipcircle.

Dr Nicola Sarandria MD, PhD

Medical doctor, Referee and Reviewer
for JCT and Award-Winning Author
PhD - Zurich, Switzerland
Immuno-Oncology and Cancer Genetics
- Harvard Medical School, USA





SEPTEMBER 23, 2022

On September 23rd the CoESPU hosted the summit conference (G4) of the European gendarme-
ries and police forces with military status, including the Italian Arma dei Carabinieri, the French Gen-
darmerie Nationale, the Spanish Guardia Civil and the Portuguese Guarda Nacional Republicana.
After common objectives in the areas of joint training and environmental protection were outli-
ned, important agreements were reached on the exchange of good practices in the cyber sphe-
re. The fields of technology and the virtual world no longer represent the future but are instead a cur-
rent challenge, making it necessary to keep up with the times and ensure institutional solidity and security.
As part of international cooperation, the police force leaders who met in Vicenza agreed on a joint
enhancement of public-private partnership and cyber training, also through periodic meetings of exper-
ts and participation in European projects, with the promotion of a virtual world proximity model.
In order to achieve the objectives set, proposals have been drawn up to improve operational communication
through training, joint research and development projects as well as in cross-cutting areas such as the metaverse.
Collaboration between the four European gendarmeries and police forces with military status will be important,
in order to select and promote young talents thus paving the way for a constant discovery of the virtual world.





SEPTEMBER 28, 2022

The Conference was opened with some introductory remarks by Brigadier General Giovanni Pietro Barbano,
CoESPU Director. Hon. Senator Francesco Battistoni, Italian State Secretary for Agricultural Food and
Forestry Policies, sent a message that was read for the official opening of the plenary session.
The results of the three working groups, which took place simultaneously, in hybrid modality, in the morning
Many interesting concepts, observations and innovative ideas on the topic, so fundamental for the future
generations, were shared among the 86 participants in presence at CoESPU and the many representatives
of military, police and civilian institutions that attended the event remotely, including the Staff Officers Course
of the Italian Navy. The Conference, jointly promoted by the CoESPU and the Carabinieri Command for
Forestry, Environment and Agri-Food, wanted to address specific issues, such as the socio-economic
repercussions of environmental damage in peacekeeping missions; the interconnection between forest
management, the greenhouse effect and conflicts and, finally, the development of institutional capacities and
projects in environmental management in the context of peace operations or destabilized situations. The
high level of the Conference was granted, in particular, by the participation of subject matter experts in
charge of this topic coming from all major International Organizations and by prominent and prestigious
researchers of Italian and foreign universities. The policies, strategies and main challenges and lessons
learned of the most important actors in peace operaitons were presented by Elizabeth Rolando, Director of
the Office of the United Nations Undersecretary for Operational Support, by Marco Bonabello, Director of
Economic and Environmental Security of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, Johanna Lauritsen,
Environmental Adviser of the European Union External Action Service, Harsen Nyambe, Director
Sustainable Environment &amp; Blue Economy of the African Union, Lev Neretin, Senior Natural Resources


Officer of the Office of Climate Change, Biodiversity and Environment at FAO, Ambassador Grammenos
Mastrojeni, Deputy Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean, and Colonel Augustin Cirjan, Head
of NATO Branch infrastructure and environment in charge of action for climate and energy. BG Massimiliano
Conti, Carabinieri C.I.T.E.S. Commander, illustrated European Multidisciplinary Platform Against Criminal
Threats activities (EMPACT) and the ones implemented by the Italian Carabinieri in the field of
environmental management. Among the panel chairs, rapporteurs and panellist, it worth mentioning, among
others, the meaningful contributions of distinguished experts such as Admiral Giuseppe De Giorgi, Former
Chief of Staff of the Italian Navy; Prof. Carlo Pelanda, of the Oxford Institute for Economic Policy and Prof.
Antonio Puliafito, of the University of Messina and Director of the National Laboratory CINI for Smart Cities &amp;
Communities, as well as the experts of the World Bank, FAO, UNICEF, CNR, ISAC, ISPRA, IUFRO, IMAA,
SIOI, OCLAESP, XERDAN, NATO SP CoE, EUROGENDFOR, US Peacekeeping and Stability Operations
Institute (PKSOI), SETAF, US National Forest Service and of the Universities of Padua, Molise, Harvard,
Wien, Bergen, Addis Ababa, John Cabot Ca’Foscari, and Sant’Anna, just to mention some of them.







JUNE 27 – JULY 5, 2022


JULY 6 – JULY 12, 2022



JULY 13 – JULY 26, 2022


JULY 13 – JULY 26, 2022















JULY 7, 2022


JULY 14, 2022


Click to View FlipBook Version